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All four offices have been described as the President of Europe, however, none can be seen to be analogous to the President of the United States who is both head of state and head of government.
Imperfect comparisons with other political system have attempted to explain the complex nature of the European institutions.
As each institution has its own leader, it has been suggested that the terms "Speaker" of the European Parliament, "Governor" of the European Central Bank, "Chairman" of the Council of the European Union, "President" of the European Council and "Prime Commissioner" would give a clearer indication of their respective roles.
During the height of the Commission President's powers in the lates and s, the Commission President was sometimes referred to as the Europe's Prime Minister   and the role of the President is similar to that of a national Prime Minister chairing a cabinet.
Whilst distinct, each president is required to closely co-operate with one another in a complex political system.
The president of each of these organs is generally held responsible their functioning and direction. The president of the European Council is considered the principal representative of the EU internationally and diplomatically.
They are appointed by the appropriate national leaders in the European Council. Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon , each member state in turn took the responsibilities of both the Presidency of the European Council and the Presidency of the Council of the European Union , the latter held by its Prime Minister or President [ citation needed ].
The press frequently summarised these responsibilities to the shorthand tag "EU Presidency" or "EU President", both for the country holding it or its political leader.
The president of the European Commission leads the Commission, the executive and cabinet of the European Union. The president, as part of this institution, is responsible for the political direction, logistics and implementation of European law and held accountable to both the European Parliament and Council of the European Union.
The role gives the holder the right to allocate portfolios to, dismiss and reshuffle European Commissioners and direct the Commission's civil service.
The president is nominated by the European Council and appointed by the European Parliament. The president of the European Parliament ensures proper parliamentary procedure is followed and is responsible for representing the Parliament in both legal and diplomatic settings.
The president must also give final assent to the EU budget. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abandoned treaties and agreements.
Council of the EU Presidency. European Court of Justice. Participating Schengen Area States. Candidate Countries for EU Membership. We search up to sites for the lowest prices.
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Adams was appointed the first American ambassador to Great Britain in When a counterpart assumed that Adams had family in England, Adams replied, "Neither my father or mother, grandfather or grandmother, great grandfather or great grandmother, nor any other relation that I know of, or care a farthing for, has been in England these one hundred and fifty years; so that you see I have not one drop of blood in my veins but what is American.
The pair's exchange was respectful; Adams promised to do all that he could to restore friendship and cordiality "between People who, tho Seperated [sic] by an Ocean and under different Governments have the Same Language, a Similar Religion and kindred Blood," and the King agreed to "receive with Pleasure, the Assurances of the friendly Dispositions of the United States.
Towards its end, he startled Adams by commenting that "There is an Opinion, among Some People, that you are not the most attached of all Your Countrymen, to the manners of France.
Adams was joined by Abigail while in London. Suffering the hostility of the King's courtiers, they escaped when they could by seeking out Richard Price , minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church and instigator of the debate over the Revolution within Britain.
Adams considered Sewall one of the war's casualties, and Sewall critiqued him as an ambassador:. His abilities are undoubtedly equal to the mechanical parts of his business as ambassador; but this is not enough.
He cannot dance, drink, game, flatter, promise, dress, swear with the gentlemen, and small talk and flirt with the ladies; in short, he has none of those essential arts or ornaments which constitute a courtier.
There are thousands who, with a tenth of his understanding and without a spark of his honesty, would distance him infinitely in any court in Europe.
Adams' tenure in Britain was complicated by both countries failing to follow their treaty obligations. The American states had been delinquent in paying debts owed to British merchants, and in response, the British refused to vacate forts in the northwest as promised.
Adams' attempts to resolve this dispute failed, and he was often frustrated by a lack of news of progress from home.
He then asked Jay to be relieved;  in , he took his leave of George III, who engaged Adams in polite and formal conversation, promising to uphold his end of the treaty once America did the same.
On June 17, Adams arrived back in Massachusetts to a triumphant welcome. He returned to farming life in the months after.
The nation's first presidential election was soon to take place. Because George Washington was widely expected to win the presidency, many felt that the vice presidency should go a northerner.
Although he made no public comments on the matter, Adams was the primary contender. The person with the most votes would be president and the second would become vice president.
As a result, Washington became the nation's first president , and Adams became its first vice president. Adams finished well ahead of all others except Washington, but was still offended by Washington receiving more than twice as many votes.
Although his term was scheduled to start on March 4, , it was delayed until April 21 because Congress could not initially achieve a quorum.
The sole constitutionally prescribed responsibility of the vice president is to preside over the Senate, where he can cast a tie-breaking vote.
Although the House agreed that the president should be addressed simply as "George Washington, President of the United States," the Senate debated the issue at some length.
Adams favored the adoption of the style of Highness as well as the title of Protector of Their [the United States'] Liberties for the president.
Adams argued that the distinctions were necessary because the highest office of the United States must be marked with "dignity and splendor" in order to command respect.
He was widely derided for his combative nature and stubbornness, especially as he actively debated and lectured the senators.
Maclay became Adams' fiercest opponent and repeatedly expressed personal contempt for him in both public and private.
He likened Adams to "a monkey just put into breeches. President " would be used. Washington quietly expressed his displeasure with the fuss and rarely consulted Adams.
As vice president, Adams largely sided with the Washington administration and the emerging Federalist Party.
He supported Washington's policies against opposition from anti-Federalists and Republicans. He cast 31 tie-breaking votes , all in support of the administration, and more than any other vice president.
In the Senate, Adams cast a tie-breaking nay vote against a last-minute motion to keep the capital in New York. Adams played a minor role in politics as vice president.
He attended few cabinet meetings, and the President sought his counsel infrequently. Toward the end of his first term, he grew accustomed to assuming a marginal role, and rarely intervened in debate.
However, Washington did join Franklin and others as the object of Adams' ire or envy. The essence of the whole will be that Dr.
Franklin's electrical Rod smote the Earth and out sprung General Washington. That Franklin electrified him with his Rod — and henceforth these two conducted all the Policy, Negotiations, Legislatures and War.
His strongest challenger, George Clinton , had On July 14, , the French Revolution began. Adams at first expressed cautious optimism, but soon began denouncing the revolutionaries as barbarous and tyrannical.
When he returned with a peace treaty on terms unfavorable to the United States, Adams urged Washington to sign it in order to prevent war. Washington chose to do so, igniting protests and riots.
He was accused of surrendering American honor to a tyrannical monarchy and of turning his back on the French Republic. The election of was the first contested American presidential election.
Like the previous two presidential elections, no candidates were put forward for voters to choose between in The Constitution provided for the selection of electors who would then chose a president.
In the remaining nine states, they were chosen by the state's legislature. Federalist members of Congress held an informal nominating caucus and named Adams and Thomas Pinckney as their candidates.
The practice of not campaigning for office would remain for many decades. As the campaign progressed, fears grew among Hamilton and his supporters that Adams was too vain, opinionated, unpredictable and stubborn to follow their directions.
He had remarked that Hamilton's economic program, centered around banks, would "swindle" the poor and unleash the "gangrene of avarice. He coerced South Carolina Federalist electors, pledged to vote for " favorite son " Pinckney, to scatter their second votes among candidates other than Adams.
Hamilton's scheme was undone when several New England state electors heard of it and agreed not to vote for Pinckney. He made derogatory references to his womanizing, real or alleged, and slurred him as the " Creole bastard.
In the end, Adams won the presidency by a narrow margin, receiving 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson, who became the vice president; Pinckney finished in third with 59 votes, and Burr came in fourth with The balance of the Electoral College votes were dispersed among nine other candidates.
Adams was sworn into office as the nation's second president on March 4, by Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth. As president, he followed Washington's lead in using the presidency to exemplify republican values and civic virtue , and his service was free of scandal.
He ignored the political patronage and office seekers which other office holders utilized. Historians debate his decision to retain the members of Washington's cabinet in light of the cabinet's loyalty to Hamilton.
The "Hamiltonians who surround him," Jefferson soon remarked, "are only a little less hostile to him than to me. Shortly after Adams was inaugurated, Hamilton sent him a detailed letter filled with policy suggestions for the new administration.
Adams dismissively ignored it. Historian Joseph Ellis writes that "[t]he Adams presidency was destined to be dominated by a single question of American policy to an extent seldom if ever encountered by any succeeding occupant of the office.
Hamilton and the Federalists favored the British monarchy against what they perceived to be the political and anti-religious radicalism of the French Revolution, while Jefferson and the Republicans, with their firm opposition to monarchy, strongly supported France.
Because of the Jay Treaty, the French saw America as Britain's junior partner and began seizing American merchant ships that were trading with the British.
Most Americans were still pro-French due to France's assistance during the Revolution, the perceived humiliation of the Jay Treaty, and their desire to support a republic against the British monarchy, and would not tolerate war with France.
On May 16, , Adams gave a speech to the House and Senate in which he called for increasing defense capabilities in case of war with France. The speech was well received by the Federalists.
Adams was depicted as an eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and the "emblems of defense" in the other.
The Republicans were outraged, for Adams had not only failed to express support for the cause of the French Republic but appeared to be calling for war against it.
Sentiments changed with the XYZ Affair. Letombe wrote to Paris stating that Jefferson had told him that it was in France's best interest to treat the American ministers civilly but "then drag out the negotiations at length" in order to arrive at most favorable solution.
According to Letombe, Jefferson called Adams "vain, suspicious, and stubborn. The diplomats were then met by three of Talleyrand's agents.
The French emissaries later code-named, X, Y, and Z refused to conduct negotiations unless the United States paid enormous bribes, one to Talleyrand personally, and another to the Republic of France.
News of the disastrous peace mission arrived in the form of a memorandum from Marshall on March 4, Adams, not wanting to incite violent impulses among the populace, announced that the mission had failed without providing details.
The Republicans frustrated the President's defense measures. Suspecting that he might be hiding material favorable to France, the House, with the support of Federalists who had heard rumors of what was contained in the messages and were happy to assist the Republicans, voted overwhelmingly to demand that Adams release the papers.
Once they were released, the Republicans, according to Abigail, were "struck dumb. Among the general public, the effects were very different.
The affair substantially weakened popular American support of France. Adams reached the height of his popularity as many in the country called for full-scale war against the French.
Federalists accused the French and their associated immigrants of provoking civil unrest. In an attempt to quell the outcry, the Federalists introduced, and the Congress passed, a series of laws collectively referred to as the Alien and Sedition Acts , which were signed by Adams in All came within a period of two weeks, in what Jefferson called an "unguarded passion.
The Sedition Act made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. He eventually agreed and signed the bills into law.
The administration initiated fourteen or more indictments under the Sedition Act, as well as suits against five of the six most prominent Republican newspapers.
The majority of the legal actions began in and , and went to trial on the eve of the presidential election. Other historians have cited evidence that the Alien and Sedition Acts were rarely enforced, namely: The Acts allowed for prosecution of many who opposed the Federalists.
Jefferson, disgusted by the acts, wrote nothing publicly but partnered with Madison to secretly draft the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
Jefferson, writing for Kentucky, wrote that states had the "natural right" to nullify any acts they deemed unconstitutional. Writing to Madison, he speculated that as a last resort the states might have to "sever ourselves from the union we so much value.
Still, the acts Adams signed into law energized and unified the Republican Party while doing little to unite the Federalists. An increase in attacks on sea marked the beginning of the undeclared naval war known as the Quasi-War.
He pursued a strategy whereby America harassed French ships in an effort sufficient to stem the French assaults on American interests.
The prospect of a French invasion of the U. Hamilton and other "High Federalists" were particularly adamant that a large army be called up, in spite of a common fear, particularly among Republicans, that large standing armies were subversive to liberty.
In May, a "provisional" army of 10, soldiers was authorized by Congress. In July, Congress created twelve infantry regiments and provided for six cavalry companies.
These numbers exceeded Adams' requests but fell short of Hamilton's. Adams was pressured by Federalists to appoint Hamilton, who had served as Washington's aide-de-camp during the Revolution, to command the army.
Washington was surprised, and as a condition of his acceptance demanded that he be permitted to appoint his own subordinates.
McHenry put forth his opinion that Washington would not serve unless permitted to choose his own officers.
Washington's list consisted entirely of Federalists. Adams firmly intended to give to Hamilton the lowest possible rank, while Washington and many other Federalists wrongly insisted that the order in which the names had been submitted to the Senate must determine seniority.
On September 21, Adams received a letter from McHenry relaying a statement from Washington threatening to resign if Hamilton were not made second-in-command.
It quickly became apparent that due to Washington's advanced age, Hamilton was the army's de facto commander.
He exerted effective control over the War Department, taking over supplies for the army. The Quasi-War continued, but there was a noticeable decline in war fever beginning in the fall once news arrived of the French defeat at the Battle of the Nile , which, it was hoped, would make them more disposed to negotiate.
That December in his address to Congress, Adams relayed these statements while expressing the need to maintain adequate defenses. The speech angered both Federalists, including Hamilton, many of whom had wanted a request for a declaration of war, and Republicans.
Hamilton's critics, including Abigail, saw in his military buildups the signs of an aspiring military dictator. The decision was made without consulting his cabinet or even Abigail, who nonetheless upon hearing of it described it as a "master stroke.
Henry declined the nomination and Adams chose William Richardson Davie to replace him. Adams again questioned the loyalty of those men but did not remove them.
Adams then decided to send the commissioners to France. He regarded Hamilton's idea as chimerical and far-fetched. On November 15, the commissioners set sail for Paris.
Direct taxation by the federal government was widely unpopular, and the government's revenue under Washington had mostly come from excise taxes and tariffs.
Though Washington had maintained a balanced budget with the help of a growing economy, increased military expenditures threatened to cause major budget deficits, and the Federalists developed a taxation plan to meet the need for increased government revenue.
Taxpayers in eastern Pennsylvania resisted federal tax collectors, and in March the bloodless Fries's Rebellion broke out.
Led by Revolutionary War veteran John Fries , rural German-speaking farmers protested what they saw as a threat to their liberties.
They intimidated tax collectors, who often found themselves unable to go about their business. Fries and two other leaders were arrested, found guilty of treason, and sentenced to hang.
They appealed to Adams requesting a pardon. The cabinet unanimously advised Adams to refuse, but he instead granted the pardon, using as justification the argument that the men had instigated a mere riot as opposed to a rebellion.
On May 5, , Adams' frustrations with the Hamilton wing of the party exploded during a meeting with McHenry, a Hamilton loyalist who was universally regarded, even by Hamilton, as an inept Secretary of War.
Adams accused him of subservience to Hamilton and declared that he would rather serve as Jefferson's vice president or minister at The Hague than be beholden to Hamilton for the presidency.
McHenry offered to resign at once, and Adams accepted. On May 10, he asked Pickering to resign. Pickering refused and was summarily dismissed.
Napoleon, realizing that the conflict was pointless, signaled his readiness for friendly relations. By the Convention of , the two sides agreed to return any captured ships and to allow for the peaceful transfer of non-military goods to an enemy of the nation.
On January 23, , the Senate voted 16—14 in favor of the treaty, four votes short of the necessary two thirds. Some Federalists, including Hamilton, urged that the Senate vote in favor of the treaty with reservations.
A new proposal was then drawn up demanding that the Treaty of Alliance of be superseded and that France pay for its damages to American property.
On February 3, the treaty with the reservations passed 22—9 and was signed by Adams. Historian Ron Chernow writes that "the threat of Jacobinism" was the one thing that united the Federalist Party, and that Adams' elimination of it unwittingly contributed to the party's demise.
Adams' leadership on naval defense has sometimes led him to be called the "father of the American Navy. Adams made his first official visit to the nation's new seat of government in early June Amid the "raw and unfinished" cityscape, the president found the public buildings "in a much greater forwardness of completion than expected.
Abigail arrived a few weeks later. Upon arriving, Adams wrote to her, "Before I end my letter, I pray Heaven to bestow the best of Blessings on this House and all that shall hereafter inhabit it.
May none but honest and wise Men ever rule under this roof. With the Federalist Party deeply split over his negotiations with France, and the opposition Republican Party enraged over the Alien and Sedition Acts and the expansion of the military, Adams faced a daunting reelection campaign in The Republicans nominated Jefferson and Burr, their candidates in the previous election.
The campaign was bitter and characterized by malicious insults by partisan presses on both sides. Federalists claimed that the Republicans were the enemies of "all who love order, peace, virtue, and religion.
Jefferson's rumored affairs with slaves were used against him. Republicans in turn accused Federalists of subverting republican principles through punitive federal laws and of favoring Britain and the other coalition countries in their war with France in order to promote aristocratic, anti-republican values.
Jefferson was portrayed as an apostle of liberty and man of the people, while Adams was labelled a monarchist.
He was accused of insanity and marital infidelity. Callender , a Republican propagandist secretly financed by Jefferson, degraded Adams' character and accused him of attempting to make war with France.
Callender was arrested and jailed under the Sedition Act, which only further inflamed Republican passions. Opposition from the Federalist Party was at times equally intense.
Some, including Pickering, accused Adams of colluding with Jefferson so that he would end up either president or vice president. Planning an indictment of Adams' character, he requested and received private documents from both the ousted cabinet secretaries and Wolcott.
Upon seeing a draft, several Federalists urged Hamilton not to send it. Wolcott wrote that "the poor old man" could do himself in without Hamilton's assistance.
Hamilton did not heed their advice. Hamilton denounced the "precipitate nomination" of Murray, the pardoning of Fries, and the firing of Pickering.
He included a fair share of personal insults, vilifying the President's "disgusting egotism" and "ungovernable temper. When the electoral votes were counted, Adams finished in third place with 65 votes, and Pinckney came in fourth with 64 votes.
Jefferson and Burr tied for first place with 73 votes each. Because of the tie, the election devolved upon the House of Representatives, with each state having one vote and a supermajority required for victory.
On February 17, — on the 36th ballot — Jefferson was elected by a vote of 10 to 4 two states abstained. To compound the agony of his defeat, Adams' son Charles, a long-time alcoholic, died on November Anxious to rejoin Abigail, who had already left for Massachusetts, Adams departed the White House in the predawn hours of March 4, , and did not attend Jefferson's inauguration.
Since him, only three out-going presidents having served a full term have not attended their successors' inaugurations. Adams appointed two U.
Supreme Court associate justices during his term in office: At the time, it was not yet certain whether Jefferson or Burr would win the election.
Regardless, Adams believed that the choice should be someone "in the full vigor of middle age" who could counter what might be a long line of successive Republican presidents.
Adams chose his Secretary of State John Marshall. He maintained a carefully reasoned nationalistic interpretation of the Constitution and established the judicial branch as the equal of the executive and legislative branches.
After the Federalists lost control of both houses of Congress along with the White House in the election of , the lame-duck session of the 6th Congress in February approved a judiciary act, commonly known as the Midnight Judges Act , which created a set of federal appeals courts between the district courts and the Supreme Court.
Adams filled the vacancies created in this statute by appointing a series of judges, whom his opponents called the "Midnight Judges," just days before his term expired.
Most of these judges lost their posts when the 7th Congress , with a solid Republican majority, approved the Judiciary Act of , abolishing the newly created courts.
Adams resumed farming at Peacefield in the town of Quincy and began work on an autobiography. The work had numerous gaps and was eventually abandoned and left unedited.
His frugal lifestyle and presidential salary had left him with a considerable fortune by Adams generally stayed quiet on public matters.
He did not publicly denounce Jefferson's actions as president,  believing that "instead of opposing Systematically any Administration, running down their Characters and opposing all their Measures right or wrong, We ought to Support every Administration as far as We can in Justice.
Shortly thereafter, both he and his father crossed party lines to support Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase.
Warren, an old friend, had attacked Adams in a pamphlet for his "partiality for monarchy" and "pride of talents and much ambition. In time, their friendship healed.
After the Federalists denounced John Quincy as no longer being of their party, Adams wrote to him that he himself had long since "abdicated and disclaimed the name and character and attributes of that sect.
After Jefferson's retirement from public life in , Adams became more vocal. He published a three-year marathon of letters in the Boston Patriot newspaper, refuting line-by-line Hamilton's pamphlet.
The initial piece was written shortly after his return from Peacefield and "had gathered dust for eight years. Although Hamilton had died in in a duel with Aaron Burr , Adams felt the need to vindicate his character against his charges.
With his son having broken from the Federalist Party and joined the Republicans, he felt he could safely do so without threatening his political career.
Having worried over the rise of sectionalism, he celebrated the growth of a "national character" that accompanied it. Daughter Abigail "Nabby" was married to Representative William Stephens Smith , but she returned to her parents' home after the failure of the marriage; she died of breast cancer in In early , Adams sent Thomas Jefferson a brief note after returning to Quincy wishing him a happy and prosperous presidency.
Jefferson failed to respond, and they did not speak again for nearly 12 years. In , Abigail wrote to Jefferson to express her condolences upon the death of his daughter Polly , who had stayed with the Adamses in London in This initiated a brief correspondence between the two which quickly descended into political rancor.
Jefferson terminated it by not replying to Abigail's fourth letter. Aside from that, by there had been no communication between Peacefield and Monticello since Adams left office.
In early , Adams reconciled with Jefferson. The previous year had been tragic for Adams; his brother-in-law and friend Richard Cranch had died along with his widow Mary, and Nabby had been diagnosed with breast cancer.
These events mellowed Adams and caused him to soften his outlook. On New Year's Day, Adams sent a brief, friendly note to Jefferson to accompany the delivery of "two pieces of homespun," a two-volume collection of lectures on rhetoric by John Quincy Adams.
Jefferson replied immediately with a cordial letter, and the two men revived their friendship, which they sustained by mail.
The correspondence that they resumed in lasted the rest of their lives, and has been hailed as among their great legacies of American literature.
Their letters represent an insight into both the period and the minds of the two revolutionary leaders and presidents. The missives lasted fourteen years, and consisted of letters — from Adams and 49 from Jefferson.
Early on, Adams repeatedly tried to turn the correspondence to a discussion of their actions in the political arena. Adams accepted this, and the correspondence turned to other matters, particularly philosophy and their daily habits.
As the two grew older, the letters became fewer and farther between. There was also a great deal that they kept to themselves.
Jefferson said nothing about his construction of a new house, domestic turmoil, slave ownership, or poor financial situation, while Adams did not mention the troublesome behavior of his son Thomas, who had failed as a lawyer and become an alcoholic, resorting afterwards to living primarily as a caretaker at Peacefield.
Abigail died of typhoid on October 28, The Marquis de Lafayette toured the country and met briefly with Adams, who greatly enjoyed the visit.
The results became official in February after a deadlock was decided in the House of Representaties. He did remark, "No man who ever held the office of President would congratulate a friend on obtaining it.
Less than a month before his death, Adams issued a statement about the destiny of the United States, which historian Joy Hakim characterized as a warning for his fellow citizens: On July 4, , the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died at his home in Quincy at approximately 6: When Adams died, his last words included an acknowledgement of his longtime friend and rival: During the First Continental Congress, Adams was sometimes solicited for his views on government.
While recognizing its importance, Adams had privately criticized Thomas Paine 's pamphlet Common Sense , which attacked all forms of monarchy, even constitutional monarchy of the sort advocated by John Locke.
It supported a unicameral legislature and a weak executive elected by the legislature. According to Adams, the author had "a better hand at pulling down than building.
This was incompatible with the system of checks and balances that conservatives like Adams would implement.
He did so in separate letters to these colleagues. We have a political party in power. That political party has a leader, currently Teresa May. She is the Prime Minister.
However, she can be removed or forced out by her political party, or by a major public outcry. This can happen much easier than getting rid of a US president, for example.
The other countries in the UK have their own parliament — Scotland, or assemblies for Wales and Northern ireland. The Queen is a non-political figurehead as we have a constitional monarchy.
She represents the people and whatever party is in power. The government of the day is led by the Prime Minister, currently Mrs. May, but that role is technically only primus inter pares: President is the term for a temporary hopefully elected leader for those nations that lack a monarch or are dictatorships.
Prime ministers can step down or be defeated and replaced as appropriate - for instance David Cameron stepped down after the Brexit referendum went wrong.
However each country has their own government as well with varying degrees of devolved powers dependant upon what they have haggled for and history:.
Northern Ireland has the Northern Ireland Executive well it does when the leading parties manage to establish a government, at the moment it is shut down as two leading parties can't agree a way forward for home governance - when the powerand works there is a leader of the Executive who could be called the Northern Irish leader, but that is a bit contentious….
This makes for some interesting issues where English only matters are voted on in the United Kingdom Parliment and Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish politicans elected to the UK Parliment can vote on English only matters, but English MPs can't vote on matters impacting only Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland as those are debated and voted on elsewhere.
There has been a few attempts to address this, but no English Parliment as such. The most recent attempt arguably is to try and establish regional governance and City Mayors in England and to devolve powers to those.
This has worked for some areas London Mayor being a good example but the region I live in doesn't have any devolved powers as such.
It's worth noting as well that the populations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are a lot smaller than England when taken as seperate countries.
The monarch now is really a ceremonial role with the Monarch by tradition not taking an active leadership role.
There is no president of England, the position does not exist. England is a non-sovereign constituent country of the United Kingdom. England is administered wholly by the United Kingdom government.
Regarding governance of the United Kingdom, the clue is in the name, it is a kingdom, with a constitutional monarchy, hence no president.
I cannot belive that someone has asked such an ignorant question. For a start, countries that have a president as head of state or government tend to be republics.
The United Kingdom for which England is one of four constituent parts along with Scotland Wales and Northern Irelamd, is- as its title infers- a kingdom.
Its system of government is known as a constitutional monarchy- in other words, a reigning monarch as head of state without any real power presiding over a democratically elected government lead by a prime minister.
The current head of state is Queen Elizabeth II and has been so since The prime minister, currently Theresa May, has completely different and more limited powers than a US style president.
A prime minister is the first among equals or Primus inter pares - Wikipedia. She is accountable to her cabinet, party and to parliament. She can resign or be got rid of by vote of confidence, either of all MPs or just those in her own party as happened to Thatcher.
She is an elected constituency MP, but prime ministers are not appointed to that role by a public vote. They are simply the MP who leads the political party which has enough votes to form a government.
People vote only for their local constituency MP in the knowledge that if their party wins, then the party leader will become Prime Minister. Theresa May has no public mandate because she was appointed by the Conservative party to replace David Cameron when he resigned after he screwed up on on Brexit.
Monarchy of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia. This includes Scotland and Wales. While it is parliament that supposedly make the laws and the people that vote for them, it is the civil service that actually put them into place.
The civil service have a long-standing reputation for being manipulative, and are almost the power behind the throne if you believe the comedy show Yes, Minister.
As Jeremy Heywood is the cabinet secretary, he and currently Nick Macpherson basically run the civil service as far as I am aware.
Because the United Kingdom, of which England is a constituent country, has a constitutional monarchy as opposed to a republic, they have a Prime Minister and not a President.
The FA, is the governing body of association football in England. The Queen is the official head of state but she has almost no political power through parliament.
She does have veto powers for laws that effect her estate though. England and in fact the U. The members of the majority party in the House of Commons elect the Prime Minister Currently Theresa May from sitting members of the house of commons.
The Prime Minister is a member of the House of Commons that has been selected by fellow members of the House of Commons and she can be deposed and replaced by them at any time.
England does not have its own government and head of state. The United Kingdom, of which England is the largest single country, is a constitutional monarchy, where all effective power is delegated to parliament.
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